Urethral stricture is the abnormal narrowing of the urethra ( tube that releases urine from the Urinary Bladder).
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Urethral stricture may be caused by inflammation or scar tissue from surgery, disease, or injury. It may also be caused by external pressure from an enlarging tumor near the urethra, although this is rare.
Risk Factors Increased risk is associated with men who have a history of sexually transmitted disease (STD), repeated episodes of urethritis or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There is also an increased risk of urethral stricture after an injury or trauma to the pelvic region. Any instrument inserted into the urethra ( catheter or cystoscope) increases the chance of developing urethral strictures.
- Dysuria (painful urination)
- Difficulty in urinating
- Decreased Urine stream (may develop suddenly or gradually)
- Spraying of urine stream
- Increased urinary frequency
- Lower abdominal pain
- Bloody urine (Initial hematuria)
- Discharge from urethra
- Swelling of penis, testes, scrotum (Extirpation)
- Urinary retention
- Recurrent infections of urinary tract
Physical examination may reveal the following:
- Redness or swelling of penis, scrotum, testis
- Urethral discharge
- Enlarged or tender prostate
- Distended bladder
- Hardness (induration) on the under surface of penis
However, sometimes the exam may reveal no abnormality.
- Urinary flow rate
- Post-void residual (PVR) measurement by USG
- Urine culture
- Tests for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
- Retrograde urethrogram to confirm diagnosis
Surgical options vary depending on the location and length of the stricture.
- Visual internal urethrotomy may be all that is needed for small stricture. A urethral catheter is left in place after the procedure.
- Open urethroplasty may be performed for long strictures by removing the affected portion or replacing it with another tissue. The results vary depending on the size and location of stricture, prior therapies and the experience of the surgeon.
- Placement of SPC in emergency
There are no drug regimes currently available for urethral strictures. If all other treatment choices fail, urinary diversion -appendicovesicostomy (Mitrofanoff procedure) – may be performed to allow the patient to perform self-catheterization of the bladder through the abdominal wall.
The results of the treatment depend upon the characteristics of the stricture viz. its length, degree of fibres, associated infection, and previous surgeries.
- Urethral stricture may totally block the urine flow, causing acute urinary retention, a condition that must be relieved quickly.
- Bladder Stones, infections of gerito urinary tract, rarely malignancies.
- Practicing safe-sex behavior may decrease the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and subsequent urethral stricture.
- Early treatment of urethral stricture may prevent complications such as kidney or bladder infection or damage.
- Catheter care if catheter placed for non – urologic cause.