Male infertility refers to the inability of a male to make a fertile female pregnant. It is usually due to semen deficiencies.


The factors may be pre-testicular, testicular or post-testicular.

Pre-testicular: Drugs, smoking, alcohol, medications affecting spermatogenesis (spironolactone, chemotherapy).

Testicular: Age, genetic defects, carcinoma, varicocele, trauma, hydrocele, mumps, idiopathic.

Post-testicular: These defects include the defects in the genital tract and ejaculation problems.


Diagnostic tools include medical history, physical examination, semen analysis, blood analysis to rule out hormonal imbalances or genetic issues. Patient’s partner can also be interviewed.


The treatment modalities depend upon the underlying disease and extent of impairment. Pre-testicular issues can be rectified by medicines. Testicular based infertility is usually medication resistant. Post-testicular infertility can be overcome by surgery.

In infertility condition, the female fertility should also be checked.